Filigree Sterling Silver Jewelry Through History Part II – 1000 A.D. To 1900 A.D.

Filigree Sterling Silver Jewelry History Part IIDefinitionn. Filigree /filligree/:From the Latin ‘Filum’, meaning ‘Thread’, and ‘Granum’ meaning ‘Seed’. Filigree is the art of curling, twisting and plaiting fine pliable threads of precious metals, and uniting them at their points of contact by means of gold or Silver solder.IntroductionPerfected over millennia, incorporating the ancient techniques and styles of vanished civilizations, Filigree is without a doubt one of the oldest and most beautiful art forms known to man.Unlike the mass of jewelry produced today Filigree jewelry is totally handcrafted, calling for hours of concentration on the part of its maker. The knowledge behind Filigree’s meticulous creation, passed down from generation to generation, remains a closely guarded secret kept in the hands of lapidary masters stretching from the islands of the Mediterranean sea to the shores of East India.The Celts And FiligreeAfter a long absence, Filigree reestablished itself in northern Europe with the Saxons, Britons and Celts who were from an early period extremely skilful in several kinds of jewelry metalwork. In fact, the Celtic jewelry perfected between the 10th and 11th Centuries in Ireland displays more thought in its design and intricate patterns than any other period in Filigree’s history. Two examples are the infamous Tara brooch, a ring fastener with a pin for piercing and holding clothing in place, and the stunning two-handled chalice called the Ardagh cup. Irish Filigree is designed in such a way that one thread can be traced through the entirety of a network of complex coils and knots, the intricate threads appear and disappear without breaking continuity or balance, finishing by being incorporated into the head or tail of a serpent or monster.The Renaissance & FiligreeThe 15th and 16th Centuries marked the dispersion of the somber Middle Ages, and the rise of the Italian ‘Renaissance’, meaning ‘Rebirth’, expressing for the first time the values of the modern world. Artists and artisans of this period found their inspiration in the revival of ancient Greece and Rome, and jewelry became once again an integral part of dress. Solemn religious subjects were gradually replaced by classical and naturalistic themes and Filigree and enameled jewelry combined with faceted gemstones were for the first time united in sculptured pendants, brooches, necklaces and chains.The 17th To 18th Centuries And FiligreeHowever, in the 17th Century due to refined methods of faceting gems the emphasis moved once more from precious metals to gemstones, and the diamond became the preferred item for jewelry. The 18th Century brought with it industrial development and mass production. Cheaper materials were utilized, in addition to gold and semi-precious gemstones, including base-metal alloys, paste to make imitation gemstones, steel and cast iron. With these cheaper methods of production jewelry techniques changed their emphasis from the artisans to less skilled mechanical processes of stamping and cutting out patterns and settings. It was during the end of the 19th Century that Peter Carl Faberge, jeweler to the Russian Tsars, reintroduced an exacting craftsmanship into jewelry design. Similar to the artisan jewelers of the Renaissance, Faberge specialized in the contrast of colors and materials, and his most original designs are those that combine gold Filigree, and colored gems such as alexandrite named after the Tsar Alexander on his birthday in 1830.The 19th Century And FiligreeBy the late 19th Century, a counter-culture movement in the decorative arts challenged the austerity of Victorian society. Art Nouveau burst upon Europe and America with a romantic glory of swirling dainty lines. Figures of girls with dreamy expressions and swirling hair, dragonflies and peacocks with iridescent colors and stylized floral themes dominated jewelry. Filigree, enameling and Pliqué A Jour, the pulling of enamel through wire to give it a stained glass look, were used and established jewelers like Louis Comfort Tiffany although continuing to use diamonds and pearls reintroduced classical gemstones like opals and moonstones.The Edwardian Epoch & FiligreeAfter the death of Queen Victoria her son, Edward VII, became king of England. In comparison to the austerity of Victorian England Edward’s reign marked a joyous return to elegance in styling, clothing and jewelry. Edwardian jewelry coincided with the Art Nouveau movement, and the delicate Filigree work that could now be fashioned echoed the laces and feathers worn by Edwardian ladies of the period. Diamonds and pearls were worn in profusion, either alone or with colored gemstones. Because of the metal strength of platinum, yellow gold was replaced as the metal of choice for jewelry. Silver and white gold, were used for the first time in Filigree and it was everywhere from brooches, bracelets, earrings, tiaras and beautiful delicate and lacy diamond rings, and with king Edwards love of elegance men’s jewelry came into its own.Filigree Sterling Silver Jewelry Through History Part I – 3000 B.C. To 400 A.D.Copyright © SilverShake Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Pogo Game Cheat

Play Buddy offers a program which will allow you to get pogo game cheats. This will give players an edge in the games they play. Programs like Tripeak are designed to keep track of every card which is played during a game of Solitaire.If you are a player who has a difficult time keeping track or would prefer not to because you lose concentration, Tripeak will keep track of the cards for you. Tools like this make the game of Solitaire and other games much more rewarding to play.Pogo Buddy is a tool which covers a wide variety of games. This includes Chess, Checkers, Freecell, and Spades. Chess Buddy is a software tool which is indispensable to those who play Chess. If you are apprehensive about the game of Chess, you won’t be after using this software.Chess Buddy provides you with hints, and will automatically make moves for you. It generates the best series of moves, and is very reliable. It cannot be detected, and can be used in tournaments against more advanced players.You will also be able to make periodic upgrades after purchasing the game. If you need help, technical support can be contacted online and they will assist you. If you want to become a skilled player with any game without spending hours learning it the pogo game cheat will be perfect for you.There are some system requirements you will need. You will need to be using Internet Explorer 6 or higher and will also need to have Java installed on your computer. These are minor system requirements that anyone one can get easily.Pogo game cheat is the tool that will make you a better player. It will electronically show you the types of moves you need to make in a variety of different games in order to become a winner. Online games are becoming more and more popular everyday.Some people are discouraged when faced with strong opponents they are not able to beat. Pogo game cheat is able to level the playing field, giving you the tools necessary to increase your odds of beating anyone. Because technology is constantly advancing, you will need to upgrade your software often.Upgrading your game software will keep you up to date and ready to challenge anyone in any game. If you have difficulty with any game, but want to learn and become better, pogo game cheat is for you.

Science Teacher Requirements – The Requirements For Teaching Science in the US

Science teachers in the U.S. are responsible for teaching classes at the elementary or secondary level in subjects that include science, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, and more. In general, to obtain certification to teach science or any of these subjects, you must meet one of the following requirements:1. Hold a science related bachelor’s degree and successfully complete a state teacher education program or2. Complete an education program in a science related discipline undergrad degree program.You will also likely be required to pass the PRAXIS series of teaching exams.Many current science teachers in the United States possess 4-year degrees in science related fields like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Zoology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, or Molecular Biology. After completion of these programs, graduates must successfully pass the PRAXIS II exam. It is at this point that you can be accepted into a teacher training program where you will be required to complete supervised student or practice teaching. Finally, once you have completed your courses in education and practice teaching, the final evaluation is the PRAXIS III which includes live classroom skill evaluations and interviews both before and after your observation.If you are currently in or are going to college, you will have to complete science core courses plus a required number of education related courses.If you are currently an undergrad and would like to teach science, options include Paraprofessional Education and Elementary Education degrees which are offered by many state colleges and universities as supplemental programs. There are also acceleration and Post-baccalaureate science teaching programs available including Masters of Arts programs in Secondary Science Education. As for accelerated programs, students are required to hold at least a 2.5 grade point average and complete preparation courses. For example in Texas, where Science teachers are in high demand, there is a requirement of twenty-four hours of advanced science prep courses and you must have a minimum GPA of 2.75. In accelerated teacher preparation programs, you can get paid internship while on a probationary or provisional certificate.If you are foreign teacher and would like to teach in the United States, you will need at least a degree that is considered equivalent to one in from a United States education program. You will likely be required to provide credentials and receive a statement from the state education department proving you are eligible or employment or to take the required examinations. If you are currently in a country where English is considered a second language, you will also be required to pass either the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS). Finally, you must obtain a recommendation or a letter of consent from the school district that would like to hire you or the education board.

Property Development Basics: Understanding Real Estate Appraisals

If you are serious about investing in real estate it is important that you understand the different tools that are available. These tools can give you important information about the properties you are considering making an investment in. One of the most important is the real estate appraisal. This can give you a good idea of a property’s value and can help you avoid sinking more money into a property than its actual value would indicate. Here is what you need to know about how real estate appraisals are determined.Basic areas of a real estate appraisalThere are many different things that a real estate appraisal will detail. The following are some of the areas that an appraisal will detail. Each of these can be used to determine whether a real estate development opportunity is a worthwhile one.Most will begin with details about a specific property. It will often include comparisons of three other properties which are similar to the one that you are considering investing in. These are known as comparables.The details about the property will also include information on factors that may make a property less valuable. Some possible reasons for the devaluation of a property include poor access to the property. It is important for you to look at these items carefully since these can affect whether or not a property will be attractive to renters or buyers after you have developed it. There are some things that can be changed about a property but some negatives may be very difficult to overcome, and you may want to avoid properties that have a long list of negative features.You should also look at the section that outlines any flaws or problems with the building or property’s condition. This can not only affect resale values it can also mean that you will end up sinking more money into a property than you want simply to make it usable by tenants or later purchasers.You also want to make sure that you pay close attention to the average sales time for the property. This is important especially if you are planning to flip a property. A long sale time may end up affecting the amount of profit you can expect to earn on your investment.What you need to rememberWhen looking at a real estate appraisal document, it may feel overwhelming. This is especially true if you are dealing with an appraisal that seems to have a lot of negative information. This is where it can be helpful to work with an experienced and trustworthy real estate agent who can help you analyze the data and determine whether a property will be good for development.This determination may change depending on the kind of property you are interested in. For example, a commercial property may be impacted by different factors than a residential property would be. A commercial property may be a poor investment if it is located away from busy commercial centers whereas a residential property may not be as heavily affected by this factor. Only you will know whether or not you are willing to take on the risk that that property presents and choose to invest your money.